accordion: a box-shaped instrument with a keyboard and bellows

Art Songs: traditional Western European classical music performed by one singer and one pianist

ballad: a story set to music

banjo: a stringed instrument whose strings are plucked; common in American folk and bluegrass music

brass family: instruments that are made of metal and played by buzzing into a mouthpiece

call and response: a common way to learn music in which one person sings part of the song (call), and another person repeats it (response)

cascara: Spanish for “shell”; the cascara is a rhythmic pattern played on the timbales

chorus: a musical section in a song with the same lyrics and melody that repeats after each verse

clave pattern: a two-bar rhythmic pattern that is the foundation of Afro-Cuban music

claves: a pair of wooden sticks that are struck together to play the clave pattern

coro: the Spanish word for “chorus”

Creole: culture of the Creole people, who are descendants of Haitian, French, and Spanish immigrants and Native American people who first settled in Louisiana

emotions: feelings

explorer: a person who uses his or her senses to learn about something

folk tale: a story passed through oral tradition from generation to generation

frottoir: a percussion instrument in zydeco music made from steel and worn over the shoulders; also known as a washboard or rubboard

gallop: a type of movement, similar to a horse galloping

guajeo: a repeated pattern of arpeggiated chords played on the piano

hoedown: a party in the country or on a farm

humming: singing without opening one’s lips

Lieder: German for “songs;” art songs by Austrian and German composers with German texts, generally written in the 19th century

lyrics: the words in a song

march: a type of music with a strong steady beat, originally written for bands marching in a parade

melody: the main tune of a piece of music, made up of pitches that go up and down

moñas: improvised, two-bar phrases that are repeated by the horn section in a salsa song

mood: the emotion or feeling created by a piece of music

opposite: things that are related but are very different from each other

oral tradition: the passing down of stories, songs, or other practices, from generation to generation through word of mouth

ornamentation: decoration that is added to make something fancier in music

patriotic: showing love or pride for your country

percussion family: group of instruments that produce sound when they are struck, shaken, or rubbed

poem: a group of words that expresses an emotion or idea, often with rhythm and patterns of sound

rhythm: pattern of sound and silence over a steady beat

salsa: the name given to Afro-Cuban dance music as it is played in New York City

sargam: a pattern of musical notes and syllables in Music of India, much like a scale

scale: a pattern of musical notes

solfège: the use of sol-fa syllables to name each note in a musical scale

steady beat: the pulse in music

tempo: the speed of music

tumbao: a repetitive rhythmic pattern heard on the bass, congas, and piano in salsa music

vibrations: the effect of the movement of air

zydeco: music of southern Louisiana that combines French dance melodies with Caribbean music and blues